Physics 335, Lecture 1 / slide 01-22

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Victorian knowledge of matter at ultra-small scales was very sketchy.  Many scientists believed that matter was continuous, something like Jello, so when J. J. Thomson discovered in 1897 that so-called "cathode rays" were in fact tiny particles (aka electrons), the most natural thing in the world was to suppose that the electrons were somehow embedded into matter like the raisins in a pudding!